Cardiac anesthesia is a specialized field within anesthesiology that focuses on the administration of anesthesia during cardiac surgery and other procedures involving the heart. This critical area of healthcare requires a deep understanding of both anesthesia principles and cardiac physiology. It is a vital component of modern medicine, enabling a wide range of cardiac procedures to be performed with precision and safety. This specialty is not limited to cardiac surgery alone but also extends to interventional cardiology procedures, such as angioplasty and stent placement, as well as electrophysiological studies and catheter ablation.
Key Role of The Department
Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG)
- Cardiac anesthesiologists are responsible for providing general anesthesia to induce unconsciousness and pain relief.
- Continuous monitoring of the patient's vital signs, including blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen saturation, and electrocardiogram (ECG) is essential throughout the surgery.
- Management of the patient's hemodynamics to ensure stable circulation during the procedure.
- Coordination with the surgical team to optimize conditions for grafting and bypassing blocked coronary arteries.
Heart Valve Surgery
- Anesthesia administration for various valve-related procedures, such as valve repair or replacement.
- Continuous monitoring of cardiac function using techniques like transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) to assess valve function during surgery.
Aortic Aneurysm Repair
- Anesthesia management for both open and endovascular aortic aneurysm repair procedures.
- Hemodynamic monitoring and support to maintain stable blood pressure and heart rate.
- Collaboration with the surgical team to ensure precise placement of stent grafts or repair of the aorta.
- Induction and maintenance of anesthesia during heart transplantation surgery.
- Continuous monitoring to assess graft function and hemodynamics following transplantation.
- Postoperative care in the intensive care unit (ICU) to ensure a smooth recovery.
Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI)
- Administration of sedation or anesthesia for patients undergoing angioplasty and stent placement.
- Monitoring patient comfort and vital signs during the procedure.
- Rapid response to any complications that may arise, such as arrhythmias or allergic reactions.
Electrophysiological Studies (EPS) and Catheter Ablation
- Anesthesia management for patients undergoing EPS or catheter ablation procedures for arrhythmia treatment.
- Ensuring patient comfort and immobilization during the procedure.
Transesophageal Echocardiography (TEE)
- Performance of TEE procedures to provide real-time imaging of the heart during surgery.
- Interpretation of TEE images to assess cardiac function and guide surgical decisions.
Cardiopulmonary Bypass Management
- Coordination with perfusionists to initiate and manage the cardiopulmonary bypass machine during open-heart surgery.
- Monitoring and adjustment of oxygenation and circulation during the use of the heart-lung machine.
- Continuous monitoring of blood pressure, cardiac output, central venous pressure, and other parameters to maintain hemodynamic stability.
Acute Crisis Management
- Cardiac anesthesiologists are trained to respond promptly to emergencies that may occur during cardiac procedures, such as cardiac arrest, arrhythmias, or massive bleeding. They administer medications and interventions as needed.