Urogynecology is a specialized field of medicine that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of pelvic floor disorders in women. These disorders encompass a range of conditions that affect the muscles, ligaments, and connective tissues supporting the pelvic organs, including the bladder, uterus, and rectum. Urogynecologists are specially trained gynaecologists with expertise in both gynaecology and urology, allowing them to provide comprehensive care for women experiencing pelvic floor dysfunction.
Common Conditions Treated By The Department
- Urinary Incontinence: This condition involves the involuntary leakage of urine. Urogynecologists can evaluate the type and severity of incontinence (stress incontinence, urge incontinence, or mixed incontinence) and recommend treatments such as behavioural therapy, physical therapy, medications, or surgical procedures like sling placement.
- Pelvic Organ Prolapse: Pelvic organ prolapse occurs when one or more pelvic organs (such as the bladder, uterus, or rectum) descend or "fall" into the vaginal canal due to weakened pelvic floor muscles and ligaments. Urogynecologists can recommend nonsurgical treatments, pelvic floor exercises, pessaries, or surgical repair procedures.
- Overactive Bladder (OAB): OAB is characterized by a sudden and frequent urge to urinate, often resulting in urinary urgency and sometimes incontinence. Urogynecologists can provide management strategies, including behavioural therapy, medications, or neuromodulation techniques.
- Fecal Incontinence: Fecal incontinence involves the unintentional passage of stool. Urogynecologists assess the underlying causes, which can include muscle or nerve damage, and offer treatments such as dietary modifications, medications, biofeedback, or surgical interventions.
- Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome (IC/BPS): IC/BPS is a chronic bladder condition that causes pelvic pain and discomfort, frequent urination, and urgency. Urogynecologists can help manage symptoms through dietary changes, medications, bladder installations, or other therapies.
- Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs): Urogynecologists can investigate and address the underlying causes of recurrent UTIs, which may include urinary tract abnormalities, bladder dysfunction, or pelvic floor issues.
- Pelvic Floor Muscle Dysfunction: Dysfunction of the pelvic floor muscles can contribute to various pelvic floor disorders. Urogynecologists often prescribe pelvic floor physical therapy, biofeedback, or electrical stimulation to strengthen these muscles and improve their function.
- Vaginal Atrophy: Vaginal atrophy occurs due to a decrease in estrogen levels, often during menopause. Urogynecologists can offer treatment options such as hormone replacement therapy, non-hormonal vaginal moisturizers, or laser therapy to alleviate symptoms like vaginal dryness, discomfort, and pain during intercourse.
- Urethral Diverticulum: Urethral diverticula are pouch-like sacs that form in the urethra and can lead to various symptoms, including pain, urinary tract infections, and urinary retention. Urogynecologists can diagnose and surgically treat this condition.
- Rectocele and Enterocele: These are types of pelvic organ prolapse involving the rectum and small intestine, respectively. Urogynecologists can recommend treatments ranging from conservative options like pelvic floor physical therapy and pessaries to surgical repair.
- Genitourinary Fistulas: Fistulas are abnormal connections between the urinary or genital tract and other adjacent organs. Urogynecologists can diagnose and perform surgical repair for conditions such as vesicovaginal fistulas (between the bladder and vagina) or rectovaginal fistulas (between the rectum and vagina).
Urogynecologists perform various procedures to diagnose and treat pelvic floor disorders and related conditions in both women and some men. These procedures are tailored to the specific diagnosis and needs of each patient. Here are some key procedures commonly performed by urogynecologists:
- Pelvic Examination: Urogynecologists conduct thorough pelvic examinations to assess the health of the pelvic organs, muscles, and tissues. This evaluation helps in diagnosing conditions like pelvic organ prolapse, muscle dysfunction, and more.
- Urodynamic Testing: Urodynamic tests assess how the bladder and urethra are functioning. These tests include uroflowmetry, cystometry, and pressure-flow studies to diagnose urinary incontinence and bladder disorders.
- Cystoscopy: Cystoscopy involves the insertion of a thin, flexible tube with a camera (cystoscope) into the bladder through the urethra. This procedure allows urogynecologists to visualize the inside of the bladder and urethra to diagnose conditions such as interstitial cystitis, urinary tract abnormalities, and bladder tumors.
- Colposcopy: Colposcopy is used to closely examine the cervix, vagina, and vulva for abnormalities, such as genital warts, inflammation, or precancerous changes.
- Pessary Fitting: Pessaries are medical devices inserted into the vagina to provide support for pelvic organ prolapse or alleviate urinary incontinence. Urogynecologists fit, adjust, and manage pessaries for patients.
- Pelvic Floor Physical Therapy: Urogynecologists often collaborate with pelvic floor physical therapists who specialize in exercises and techniques to strengthen and rehabilitate pelvic floor muscles.
- Transvaginal Mesh Removal: In cases where complications arise from previous pelvic organ prolapse surgeries using transvaginal mesh, urogynecologists can perform surgical mesh removal procedures.
- Botulinum Toxin (Botox) Injections: For patients with overactive bladder or certain types of urinary incontinence, urogynecologists may administer Botox injections into the bladder muscles to relax them and reduce urgency and frequency of urination.
- Sacrocolpopexy: This surgical procedure involves the placement of mesh or other materials to repair pelvic organ prolapse, providing support to the vaginal wall and organs.
- Midurethral Sling Placement: For stress urinary incontinence, urogynecologists often perform midurethral sling procedures to support the urethra and prevent urine leakage during activities like coughing or sneezing.
- Vaginal Reconstructive Surgery: Surgical procedures such as anterior colporrhaphy (bladder repair), posterior colporrhaphy (rectal repair), and perineorrhaphy (perineal repair) are performed to correct pelvic organ prolapse and restore pelvic floor anatomy.
- Fistula Repair: Urogynecologists perform surgical repairs to correct genitourinary fistulas, such as vesicovaginal fistulas (between the bladder and vagina) or rectovaginal fistulas (between the rectum and vagina).
- Laparoscopic and Robotic Surgery: Advanced minimally invasive surgical techniques, including laparoscopy and robot-assisted surgery, are used for procedures like sacrocolpopexy and hysteropexy to treat pelvic organ prolapse.
- Bulking Agent Injections: Urogynecologists may inject bulking agents into the urinary sphincter to treat stress urinary incontinence by increasing urethral resistance.
- Hysteroscopy: Hysteroscopy allows urogynecologists to examine and treat conditions within the uterine cavity, such as uterine polyps or fibroids.
- Restored Quality of Life: Effective treatment of pelvic floor disorders can lead to improved bladder and bowel control, alleviating discomfort and embarrassment associated with these conditions.
- Enhanced Sexual Health: Addressing pelvic floor dysfunction can improve sexual satisfaction and comfort for women and their partners.
- Improved Body Confidence: Treating conditions like pelvic organ prolapse can lead to increased comfort and confidence in physical activities and daily life.
- Prevention of Complications: Addressing pelvic floor disorders can help prevent potential complications, such as recurrent UTIs, kidney problems, and social isolation.
Call 011-42888888 to book an appointment with a specialist at Sri Balaji Action Medical Institute.